The hottest response to the photovoltaic crisis is

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In response to the imminent expansion of photovoltaic crisis, the market system needs to be improved

China's photovoltaic industry, which has led the world in terms of production capacity for four consecutive years, is not only bearish in the capital market, but also has a heavy debt burden

as of the first half of this year, the debt of China's top 10 photovoltaic enterprises has accumulated more than 110billion yuan. Wuxi Suntech, Jiangxi Saiwei and other key enterprises have fallen below US $1 on Nasdaq, facing the risk of delisting and bankruptcy

in order to solve the crisis, it is imperative to start the domestic photovoltaic market. In this regard, fan Bi, deputy director of the comprehensive Department of the Research Office of the State Council, believes that the state should not introduce a new subsidy policy, but should adjust the original subsidy policy and tap the policy potential while the total amount of subsidies remains unchanged

specifically, financial funds should be changed from subsidized installed capacity to subsidized power generation; All kinds of subsidy funds should be changed from subsidized power generation end to subsidized distributed photovoltaic power generation user end. In terms of the use of funds, the photovoltaic subsidy cost should be reduced through bidding competition, so as to subsidize as much electricity as possible with as little funds as possible

three constraints on the expansion of PV domestic market

21st century: coping with the current PV crisis in China and expanding domestic market demand have become the consensus of the industry. At the operational level, what are the constraints facing the expansion of photovoltaic power generation in the domestic market

fan Bi: in 2011, the domestic photovoltaic market installed 2.2 million KW, only about 10% of the total photovoltaic cell output. Under the situation of idle production capacity and insufficient external demand, the only way to alleviate the plight of the whole industry is to significantly expand domestic market demand

the expansion of PV domestic market is first of all the guiding ideology

photovoltaic power generation still continues the idea of "large-scale, high concentration development, long-distance, high-voltage transmission" of wind power, and focuses on the northwest desert area. The installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation in the five provinces in Northwest China is 1.85 million KW, accounting for more than 60% of the country, mainly large-scale photovoltaic power stations. Although the northwest is rich in scenery resources, the consumption space of the local market is limited, and it needs to be transported to East and central China by UHV over a long distance of one or two thousand kilometers

from the general law of energy utilization, scattered and scarce energy should be used in a decentralized manner. If it is used in a centralized manner, the cost will be relatively high, such as wind power and solar power generation. Europe and the United States implemented the mode of "small-scale, distributed, low-voltage, local decentralized access system", which met most of the new power demand. This mode has little impact on important parameters such as the main frequency and voltage of power, and is more in line with the characteristics of wind power and photovoltaic power generation and the current technical level

secondly, the subsidy effect is not ideal. For example, the golden sun demonstration project was launched in 2009, and a total of about 10billion yuan of subsidy funds were used in three years, which strongly supported photovoltaic enterprises in trouble. However, as the subsidy method is to allocate funds in advance according to the declaration, there are phenomena such as over reporting and less construction, and inferior component procurement. The actual scale and power station quality, especially the most critical power generation, are difficult to reach the declaration level. The role of subsidies in stimulating the demand for photovoltaic products is not ideal

finally, there is a lack of effective support from smart electricity technology. In developed countries, smart micro electricity is a power construction and operation mode rising on the user side in order to adapt to the development of various power forms and distributed energy (new energy such as wind and light and shale gas). The international scientific and technological community calls it the "third industrial revolution". For example, the United States, Japan and Europe have implemented a large-scale e-beam rooftop photovoltaic program. Many families use rooftop photovoltaic power during the day. In addition to meeting their own needs, excess power can be sold to electricity; If it is not enough, it will buy electricity from electricity, forming a pattern of thousands of households using photovoltaic. These distributed power points abroad are also the main customers of photovoltaic products in China. In Germany and Italy, 7 and 9 million kilowatts of rooftop photovoltaic were built respectively last year

according to the power law passed in 1995, "only one power supply business organization is established in a power supply business area". Except for the power company, other institutions shall not sell electricity. This regulation obviously lags behind the trend of modern power development. In recent years, relevant national departments and power enterprises have focused on the development of smart electricity, the main goal of which is to meet the needs of large-scale, centralized and long-distance transmission of the standard distance force of measuring samples stretched to a given stress, and how to open to micro and distributed energy has not been put on the agenda, which to a large extent restricts the use of photovoltaic products in China

two major adjustments should be made to the subsidy method

21st century: according to the experience of various countries, starting the photovoltaic market is inseparable from the subsidy mechanism. At present, what problems exist in the domestic photovoltaic power generation subsidy policy in practice

fan Bi: in terms of subsidy mechanism, in addition to the above golden sun demonstration project, renewable electricity price surcharge fund is also a way. In 2011, the national development and Reform Commission issued the first national unified subsidy policy for solar photovoltaic power generation, with a subsidy of 1.15 yuan or 1 yuan per kilowatt hour. That is, the part exceeding the benchmark electricity price of conventional thermal power will be paid by the renewable electricity price additional fund added to the sales electricity price

the additional standard of renewable energy electricity price was increased from the initial 2 cm/kWh to 4 cm/kwh in November 2009 and 8 cm/kwh in December 2011. According to the current standard, in theory, the annual receivable of renewable energy funds is about 30billion yuan. Due to various relief policies and irregular collection process management, the actual annual income of the fund is less than 20billion yuan. The money is mainly used for wind power subsidies, about 18billion yuan, and the rest is used for power access system engineering, biomass power generation, garbage power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc., with a serious total shortage. At present, a large number of fund subsidies are in arrears, and wind power will only make up until the fourth quarter of 2010. The number of funds that can be used for photovoltaic power generation is small

compared with conventional energy, photovoltaic power generation is less economical and uncompetitive. It can only be profitable through subsidies in a certain period of time. However, the subsidy for photovoltaic power generation cannot be increased indefinitely. In the case of limited subsidy funds, it is necessary to drive as much photovoltaic power generation with as little funds as possible through reasonable institutional arrangements and competition mechanisms

21st century: what adjustments should be made to the relevant subsidy policies if China's domestic market is further expanded

first, a stable source of photovoltaic power generation subsidies should be established. We should fully tap the potential of existing policies, cancel the additional reduction and exemption policies for renewable energy electricity prices issued by various regions, and strengthen the management of all links of collection and use, so as to collect all accounts receivable. This alone can increase the renewable energy fund by nearly 20billion yuan a year, which can be used to support photovoltaic power generation. In this way, the amount of subsidies for wind power and biomass energy in the original fund can be basically unchanged

secondly, the subsidy method should be adjusted. For the golden sun project power generation project, the subsidy installed capacity (that is, the state will subsidize a certain proportion of the initial investment of the photovoltaic power generation project at one time) should be changed to the subsidy generated capacity (that is, the state promises that the owner will give a certain subsidy for each kilowatt hour of electricity generated during the life cycle of the photovoltaic power generation project), so as to avoid false declaration of installed capacity and shoddy products; For distributed photovoltaic power generation projects, the subsidy should be changed from the subsidized power generation end (that is, the subsidy per kilowatt hour is the difference between the electricity price on the photovoltaic benchmark and the electricity price on the local thermal power benchmark) to the subsidized user end (that is, the subsidy per kilowatt hour is the difference between the electricity price on the photovoltaic benchmark and the local sales electricity price)

because distributed generation projects have the characteristics of spontaneous self use, the efficiency of subsidized users can be several times higher than that of subsidized power generation. For example, at present, the electricity price of photovoltaic power generation is 1 yuan per kilowatt hour, and the benchmark electricity price of thermal power in western provinces is generally 3. It is neat: the leading integrated design in the industry is no more than 0.3 yuan, and the national subsidy for photovoltaic power generation is about 0.70 yuan. If we want to maintain such a large subsidy range, we need to continuously raise the sales electricity price, which is difficult for China's current economy and society to bear. The actual price level of industrial and commercial electricity in eastern and central China is about 0.8 ~ 1 yuan per kilowatt hour. If they are subsidized 0 3 yuan, they have the enthusiasm to adopt distributed photovoltaic power generation. Only 1 kwh can be subsidized for 0.70 yuan at the western power generation end, and about 3 ~ 4 kwh can be subsidized at the same price at the eastern and central user ends

at the same time, in order to improve the competitiveness of photovoltaic power generation and finally reach the level that can compete with conventional power generation, photovoltaic subsidy costs can also be reduced through bidding competition. For example, subsidized bidding can be carried out nationwide for owners of photovoltaic power generation, and enterprises with the lowest subsidy can be selected to win the bid for the development of photovoltaic power generation. This is also conducive to maximizing the benefits of subsidized public financial funds and eliminating backward production capacity in the photovoltaic industry

timely revise the electricity law

21st century: after the change of the above subsidy methods, how can the larger cross-sectional area of photovoltaic subsidies in the existing renewable energy funds play a role

fan Bi: to give full play to the role of subsidies, we need to make an overall and centralized use of photovoltaic subsidy funds, including photovoltaic subsidies in the renewable energy electricity price supplementary fund, and the funds used in the "golden sun project" and "roof photovoltaic plan" in the financial funds, which can reach nearly 30billion yuan a year. If these funds are fully used for the subsidy at the power selling end, it is assumed that the subsidy is 0% per kWh According to the calculation of 3 yuan, 120 billion kwh of photovoltaic power generation can be subsidized every year (the national photovoltaic power generation was 2 billion kwh last year), and the corresponding installed capacity is 120 million KW, 40 times that of the existing photovoltaic installed capacity, which can effectively release the existing photovoltaic capacity

21st century: with the promotion of distributed photovoltaic power generation, should electricity also be reformed

fan Bi: we advocate building flexible, open and safe smart electricity. Electricity should use modern information technology to provide efficient and convenient access and settlement services for distributed photovoltaic power generation. Before completing the power market reform, we should fully implement the energy-saving power generation scheduling method in accordance with the requirements of the State Council, and give priority to the full scheduling of photovoltaic power generation. Revise the electricity law in a timely manner to eliminate the provision that "only one power supply business organization is established in a power supply business area", so as to clear the legal obstacles to distributed photovoltaic power generation. Zhonghua glass () Department

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